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ENGLISH | ANGLAIS From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Fela" redirects here. For the Broadway musical, see Fela!. Fela Kuti Fela Kuti in 1970 Background information Birth name Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti Also known as Fela Anikulapo Kuti Fela Ransome-Kuti Born 15 October 1938 Abeokuta, Nigeria Died 2 August 1997 (aged 58) Genres Afrobeat, Highlife Occupations Singer-songwriter, instrumentalist, activist Instruments Saxophone, vocals, keyboards, trumpet, guitar, drums Years active 1958–1997 Labels Barclay/PolyGram, MCA/Universal, Celluloid, EMI Nigeria, JVC, Wrasse, Shanachie, Knitting Factory Associated acts Africa '70, Egypt '80, Koola Lobitos, Nigeria '70, Hugh Masekela, Ginger Baker, Tony Allen, Femi Kuti, Seun Kuti, Roy Ayers, Lester Bowie Website Fela Anikulapo Kuti (15 October 1938 — 2 August 1997), or simply Fela ([feˈlæ]), was a Nigerian multi-instrumentalist musician and composer, pioneer of Afrobeat music, human rights activist, and political maverick.[1] Biography Fela was born Olufela Olusegun Oludotun Ransome-Kuti[2] in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria[3] into a middle-class family. His mother, Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti was a feminist activist in the anti-colonial movement and his father, Reverend Israel Oludotun Ransome-Kuti, a Protestant minister and school principal, was the first president of the Nigerian Union of Teachers.[4] His brothers, Beko Ransome-Kuti and Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, both medical doctors, are well known in Nigeria. Fela was a first cousin to the Nigerian writer and Nobel laureate Wole Soyinka, the first African to win a Nobel Prize for Literature. Fela was sent to London in 1958 to study medicine but decided to study music instead at the Trinity College of Music. While there, he formed the band Koola Lobitos, playing a fusion of jazz and highlife.[5] In 1960, Fela married his first wife, Remilekun (Remi) Taylor, with whom he would have three children (Femi, Yeni, and Sola). In 1963, Fela moved back to Nigeria, re-formed Koola Lobitos and trained as a radio producer for the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation. He played for some time with Victor Olaiya and his All Stars.[6] In 1967, he went to Ghana to think up a new musical direction.[4] That was when Kuti first called his music Afrobeat.[4] In 1969, Fela took the band to the United States. While there, Fela discovered the Black Power movement through Sandra Smith (now Izsadore)—a partisan of the Black Panther Party—which would heavily influence his music and political views and renamed the band Nigeria '70. Soon, the Immigration and Naturalization Service was tipped off by a promoter that Fela and his band were in the U.S. without work permits. The band then performed a quick recording session in Los Angeles that would later be released as The '69 Los Angeles Sessions. After Fela and his band returned to Nigeria, the band was renamed The Africa '70, as lyrical themes changed from love to social issues.[5] He then formed the Kalakuta Republic, a commune, a recording studio, and a home for many connected to the band that he later declared independent from the Nigerian state. Fela set up a nightclub in the Empire Hotel, named the Afro-Spot and then the Afrika Shrine, where he performed regularly. Fela also changed his middle name to Anikulapo (meaning "he who carries death in his pouch"),[7] stating that his original middle name of Ransome was a slave name. The recordings continued, and the music became more politically motivated.[citation needed] Fela's music became very popular among the Nigerian public and Africans in general.[8] In fact, he made the decision to sing in Pidgin English so that his music could be enjoyed by individuals all over Africa, where the local languages spoken are very diverse and numerous. As popular as Fela's music had become in Nigeria and elsewhere, it was also very unpopular with the ruling government, and raids on the Kalakuta Republic were frequent. During 1972 Ginger Baker recorded Stratavarious with Fela appearing alongside Bobby Gass.[9] Around this time, Kuti was becoming more involved in Yoruba religion.[10] In 1977 Fela and the Afrika '70 released the hit album Zombie, a scathing attack on Nigerian soldiers using the zombie metaphor to describe the methods of the Nigerian military. The album was a smash hit with the people and infuriated the government, setting off a vicious attack against the Kalakuta Republic, during which one thousand soldiers attacked the commune. Fela was severely beaten, and his elderly mother was thrown from a window, causing fatal injuries. The Kalakuta Republic was burned, and Fela's studio, instruments, and master tapes were destroyed. Fela claimed that he would have been killed had it not been for the intervention of a commanding officer as he was being beaten. Fela's response to the attack was to deliver his mother's coffin to the Dodan Barracks in Lagos, General Olusegun Obasanjo's residence, and to write two songs, "Coffin for Head of State" and "Unknown Soldier", referencing the official inquiry that claimed the commune had been destroyed by an unknown soldier.[11] Fela and his band then took residence in Crossroads Hotel as the Shrine had been destroyed along with his commune. In 1978 Fela married twenty-seven women, many of whom were his dancers, composers, and singers to mark the anniversary of the attack on the Kalakuta Republic. Later, he was to adopt a rotation system of keeping only twelve simultaneous wives.[12] The year was also marked by two notorious concerts, the first in Accra in which riots broke out during the song "Zombie", which led to Fela being banned from entering Ghana. The second was at the Berlin Jazz Festival after which most of Fela's musicians deserted him, due to rumors that Fela was planning to use the entire proceeds to fund his presidential campaign. Despite the massive setbacks, Fela was determined to come back. He formed his own political party, which he called Movement of the People. In 1979 he put himself forward for President in Nigeria's first elections for more than a decade but his candidature was refused. At this time, Fela created a new band called Egypt '80 and continued to record albums and tour the country. He further infuriated the political establishment by dropping the names of ITT vice-president Moshood Abiola and then General Olusegun Obasanjo at the end of a hot-selling 25-minute political screed titled "I.T.T. (International Thief-Thief)". In 1984, Muhammadu Buhari's government, of which Kuti was a vocal opponent, jailed him on a charge of currency smuggling which Amnesty International and others denounced as politically motivated.[13] His case was taken up by several human-rights groups, and after 20 months, he was released from prison by General Ibrahim Babangida. On his release he divorced his twelve remaining wives, saying that "marriage brings jealousy and selfishness."[12] Once again, Fela continued to release albums with Egypt '80, made a number of successful tours of the United States and Europe and also continued to be politically active. In 1986, Fela performed in Giants Stadium in New Jersey as part of the Amnesty International Conspiracy of Hope concert, sharing the bill with Bono, Carlos Santana, and The Neville Brothers. In 1989, Fela and Egypt '80 released the anti-apartheid Beasts of No Nation album that depicts on its cover U.S. President Ronald Reagan, UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and South African Prime Minister Pieter Willem Botha. His album output slowed in the 1990s, and eventually he stopped releasing albums altogether. In 1993 he and four members of the Afrika '70 organization were arrested for murder. The battle against military corruption in Nigeria was taking its toll, especially during the rise of dictator Sani Abacha. Rumors were also spreading that he was suffering from an illness for which he was refusing treatment. On 3 August 1997, Olikoye Ransome-Kuti, already a prominent AIDS activist and former Minister of Health, stunned the nation by announcing his younger brother's death a day earlier from Kaposi's sarcoma which was brought on by AIDS. More than a million people attended Fela's funeral at the site of the old Shrine compound. A new Africa Shrine has opened since Fela's death in a different section of Lagos under the supervision of his son Femi Kuti. [edit] Music Main article: Afrobeat The musical style performed by Fela Kuti is called Afrobeat, which is a complex fusion of Jazz, Funk, Ghanaian/Nigerian High-life, psychedelic rock, and traditional West African chants and rhythms. Afrobeat also borrows heavily from the native "tinker pan" African-style percussion that Kuti acquired while studying in Ghana with Hugh Masakela, under the uncanny Hedzoleh Soundz.[14] The importance of the input of Tony Allen (Fela's drummer of twenty years) in the creation of Afrobeat cannot be overstated. Fela once famously stated that, "without Tony Allen, there would be no Afrobeat". Afrobeat is characterized by a fairly large band with many instruments, vocals, and a musical structure featuring jazzy, funky horn sections. The "endless groove" is used, in which a base rhythm of drums, shekere, muted West African style guitar, and melodic bass guitar riffs are repeated throughout the song. Commonly, interlocking melodic riffs and rhythms are introduced one by one, building the groove bit-by-bit and layer-by-layer to an astonishing melodic and polyrhythmic complexity. The horn section then becomes prominent, introducing other riffs and main melodic themes. Fela’s band was notable for featuring two baritone saxophones, whereas most groups were using only one of this instrument. This is a common technique in African and African-influenced musical styles, and can be seen in funk and hip hop. Fela’s bands at times even performed with two bassists at the same time both playing interlocking melodies and rhythms. There were always two or more guitarists. The electric West African style guitar in Afrobeat bands are paramount, but are used to give basic structure, playing a repeating chordal/melodic statement, riff, or groove. Some elements often present in Fela's music are the call-and-response within the chorus and figurative but simple lyrics. Fela's songs were also very long, at least 10–15 minutes in length, and many reaching the 20 or even 30 minutes, while some unreleased tracks would last up to 45 minutes when performed live. This was one of many reasons that his music never reached a substantial degree of popularity outside Africa. His LP records frequently had one 30 minute track per side. Typically there is an instrumental “introduction” jam part of the song, perhaps 10-15 mins. long before Fela starts singing the “main” part. His songs were mostly sung in Nigerian pidgin, although he also performed a few songs in the Yoruba language. Fela's main instruments were the saxophone and the keyboards, but he also played the trumpet, electric guitar, and took the occasional drum solo. Fela refused to perform songs again after he had already recorded them, which also hindered his popularity outside Africa. Fela was known for his showmanship, and his concerts were often quite outlandish and wild. He referred to his stage act as the Underground Spiritual Game. Fela attempted making a movie but lost all the materials to the fire that was set to his house by the military government in power. Kuti thought that art, and thus his own music, should have political meaning.[10] [edit] Political views “ Imagine Che Guevara and Bob Marley rolled into one person and you get a sense of Nigerian musician and activist Fela Kuti. ” — Herald Sun, February 2011 [15] Kuti thought that the most important thing for Africans to fight is European cultural imperialism, Kuti being a supporter of traditional religions and lifestyles.[10] The American Black Power movement influenced Fela's political views. He was also a supporter of Pan-Africanism and socialism, and called for a united, democratic African republic. He was a candid supporter of human rights, and many of his songs are direct attacks against dictatorships, specifically the militaristic governments of Nigeria in the 1970s and 1980s. He was also a social commentator, and he criticized his fellow Africans (especially the upper class) for betraying traditional African culture. The African culture he believed in also included having many wives (polygyny) and the Kalakuta Republic was formed in part as a polygamist colony. He defended his stance on polygyny with the words "A man goes for many women in the first place. Like in Europe, when a man is married, when the wife is sleeping, he goes out and @#!*% around. He should bring the women in the house, man, to live with him, and stop running around the streets!"[16] His views towards women are characterized by some as misogynist, with songs like "Mattress" typically cited as evidence[17] In a more complex example, he mocks the aspiration of African women to European standards of ladyhood while extolling the values of the market woman in his song "Lady". Bypassing editorial censorship in Nigeria's predominantly state controlled media, Kuti began in the 1970s buying advertising space in daily and weekly newspapers such as The Daily Times and The Punch in order to run outspoken political columns.[18] Published throughout the 1970s and early 1980s under the title Chief Priest Say, these columns were essentially extensions of Kuti's famous Yabi Sessions—consciousness-raising word-sound rituals, with himself as chief priest, conducted at his Lagos nightclub. Organized around a militantly Afrocentric rendering of history and the essence of black beauty, Chief Priest Say focused on the role of cultural hegemony in the continuing subjugation of Africans. Kuti addressed a number of topics, from explosive denunciations of the Nigerian Government's criminal behavior; Islam and Christianity's exploitative nature, and evil multinational corporations; to deconstructions of Western medicine, Black Muslims, sex, pollution, and poverty. Chief Priest Say was cancelled, first by Daily Times then by Punch, ostensibly due to non-payment, but many commentators[who?] have speculated that the paper's respective editors were placed under increasingly violent pressure to stop publication. [edit] The Fela revival In recent years there has been a revitalization of Fela's influence on music and popular culture, culminating in another re-release of his catalog controlled by Universal Music, off-and-on Broadway biopic shows, and new bands, such as Antibalas, who carry the Afrobeat banner to a new generation of listeners. In 1999, Universal Music France, under the aegis of Francis Kertekian, remastered the 45 albums that it controlled and released them on twenty-six compact discs. These titles were licensed to other territories of the world with the exception of Nigeria and Japan, where Fela's music was controlled by other companies. In 2005, Universal Music USA licensed all of its world-music titles to the UK-based label Wrasse Records, which repackaged the same twenty-six CDs for distribution in the USA (replacing the MCA-issued titles there) and the UK. In 2009, Universal created a new deal for the USA with Knitting Factory Records and for Europe with PIAS, which included the release of the Fela! Broadway cast album. Thomas McCarthy's 2008 film The Visitor depicted a disconnected professor (Oscar nominee Richard Jenkins) who wanted to play the djembe. He learns from a young Syrian (Haaz Sleiman) who tells the professor he will never truly understand African music unless he listens to Fela. The film features clips of Fela's "Open and Close" and "Je'nwi Temi (Don't Gag Me)." In 2008, an off-Broadway production of Fela Kuti's life titled Fela! began with a collaborative workshop between the Afrobeat band Antibalas and Tony award winner Bill T. Jones. The show was a massive success, selling out shows during its run, and garnering much critical acclaim. On November 22, 2009, Fela! began a run on Broadway at the Eugene O'Neill Theater. Jim Lewis helped co-write the play (along with Bill T. Jones), and obtained producer backing from Jay-Z and Will Smith, among others. On May 4, 2010, Fela! was nominated for 11 Tony Awards, including Best Musical, Best Book of a Musical, Best Direction of a Musical for Bill T. Jones, Best Leading Actor in a Musical for Sahr Ngaujah, and Best Featured Actress in a Musical for Lillias White.[19] On August 18, 2009, award winning DJ J.Period released a free mixtape to the general public via his website that was a collaboration with Somali-born hip hop artist K'naan paying tribute to Fela, Bob Marley and Bob Dylan entitled The Messengers. In October 2009, Knitting Factory Records began the process of re-releasing the 45 titles that Universal Music controls, starting with yet another re-release of the compilation The Best of the Black President in the USA. The rest is expected to be released in 2010.[dated info] In addition, a movie by Focus Features, directed by Steve McQueen and written by Biyi Bandele about the life of Fela Kuti went into production in 2010. It was announced in 2010 that Chiwetel Ejiofor would play the lead role.[20] [edit] Discography Main article: Fela Kuti discography [edit] Filmography Fela in Concert 1981, (VIEW) Music is the Weapon 1982, Stéphane Tchal-Gadjieff & Jean Jacques Flori, (Universal Music) Fela Live! Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and the Egypt ’80 Band 1984, Recorded Live At Glastonbury, England (Yazoo) Femi Kuti—Live at the Shrine 2005, Recorded Live At Lagos, Nigeria (Palm Pictures) FRENCH | FRANCAIS Fela Anikulapo Kuti est un chanteur, saxophoniste, chef d'orchestre et homme politique nigérian né en 1938 à Abeokuta et mort en 1997. Fondateur de l'organisation "République de Kalakuta" au Nigeria, il fut parmi les inventeurs de l’afrobeat, fusion des éléments afro-américains du funk, du jazz, de la musique d'Afrique occidentale, de la musique traditionnelle nigériane et des rythmes yorubas. Présentation[modifier] De mémoire d’Africain, aucun musicien n’aura marqué d’un tel impact la vie socio-politique d’une nation, qui plus est la plus puissante du continent. Nous sommes au Nigeria au début des années 1970. Le pays à peine sorti de la guerre du Biafra connaît un véritable boom pétrolier qui le propulse en quelques mois au rang des premiers pays exportateurs de l’OPEP. Les juntes militaires se succèdent, l’élite et les multinationales se partagent alors les bénéfices de la manne pétrolière dans une corruption généralisée, tandis que les ghettos se multiplient dans la périphérie de Lagos. Dans cette atmosphère où la corruption et l’arbitraire sont loi, émerge un chanteur : Fela Anikulapo Kuti. Il se sert de sa musique comme d’une redoutable arme pour brosser un sombre tableau des mœurs socio-politiques. Ses chansons en pidgin — l’anglais du petit peuple — qui durent en moyenne un quart d’heure sont souvent de virulentes diatribes contre la dictature militaire, la corruption qui gangrène les élites, mais décrivent aussi la misère de la rue et suggèrent à l’Africain qu’il doit conquérir sa liberté par un retour aux sources qui lui rendra son identité et sa vérité. Musicien génial et inspiré, Fela allie le jazz et la soul aux rythmes locaux, le ju-ju et le highlife dans un cocktail explosif : l’afrobeat. Sa popularité s’étend bientôt au-delà même des frontières du pays grâce à des tubes qui font de véritables cartons dans toute la sous-région : Shakara, Zombie, Lady , No agreement , hasta la vista... Le petit peuple des ghettos a trouvé son héros, celui qui dénonce les bassesses de la haute société et fait trembler les puissants. Mais très vite, il va s’attirer les foudres du pouvoir militaire qui supporte très mal ses satires qui le tournent en bourrique. Après la sortie de son album antimilitariste Zombie (1976), sa propriété baptisée Kalakuta Republic est entièrement rasée dans un raid militaire au cours de laquelle sa mère âgée de 78 ans est défenestrée — elle succombera quelques mois plus tard des suites de ses blessures. Fela est plusieurs fois jeté en prison et torturé. Biographie[modifier] Abeokuta[modifier] Fela — de son vrai nom Fela Hildegart Ransome — est issu d’une famille bourgeoise yoruba et grandit dans un univers familial engagé entre son père, le pasteur Ransome-Kuti, qui l’initie très tôt au piano, et sa mère Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, nationaliste activiste, qui influence son militantisme. Koola Lobitos[modifier] 1958 : Fela s’envole pour Londres pour des études. Mais au lieu d'étudier la médecine comme ses deux frères l'avaient fait avant lui, il choisit la musique. Au Trinity College of Music, il fait ses premières armes sur scène. Très influencé par le jazz, il forme un groupe avec des amis nigérians et antillais, le Koola Lobitos. Dans des cafés, le groupe reprend quelques classiques de jazz en y ajoutant une pincée de highlife, alors en vogue en Afrique. C’est alors qu’il rencontre une jeune métisse nigériano-américaine, Remilekun Taylor et future mère de Femi. Coup de foudre : ils se marient quelques mois plus tard. Il rentre au Nigeria en 1963, le diplôme en poche. Il a du mal à trouver sa voie entre un boulot de producteur et sa carrière de musicien qui ne décolle pas. C’est finalement en 1969, lors d’une tournée aux États-Unis que le déclic se produit : il rencontre Sandra Smith, une militante noire des Black Panthers qui lui expose les idées de Malcolm X. De retour au pays l’homme n’est plus le même. Il commence par changer le nom de son groupe : exit Koola Lobitos, viva Africa 70. Il décide d’imposer un rythme moins jazz et plus proche des rythmes africains : l’afro-beat est né. Africa 70[modifier] Désormais Fela ne chante plus en yoruba, mais en pidgin, de manière à être accessible à une bonne partie du public africain. Il se convertit à l'animisme et prend le redoutable patronyme d'Anikulapo — celui qui porte la mort dans sa gibecière — Kuti — qui ne peut être tué par la main de l'homme. Discours enflammés sous une impressionnante orchestration rythmique assurée par de puissantes percussions, des cuivres envoûtants, très souvent ponctuée de grandes envolées au saxophone, son succès est foudroyant. Bien que censuré par les médias d’Etat, il collectionne les tubes en même temps que grandit sa popularité. Mais aussi les difficultés pour se produire avec ses musiciens sur scène, l'accès à certains clubs lui étant refusé, il force la main, joue à l'Afro Spot, chauffe ses supporters et harangue ses ennemis. La "Kalakuta Republic"[modifier] Alors que le pays connaît un véritable boom pétrolier, une fracture sociale s'amorce entre, d’un côté l’élite corrompue qui en profite, et de l’autre la grande majorité d’anciens paysans qui, attirés par le mirage pétrolier ont déserté leurs champs pour tenter leur chance à Lagos. La musique de Fela est le cri de cœur de ces millions d’exclus qui ne veulent pas mourir, le cireur de chaussures ambulant ou le boy payé 50 nairas le mois. Janvier 1977 : Festival mondial des Arts nègres à Lagos. Non seulement Fela boycotte la rencontre, il organise aussi une série de concerts gratuits qui attirent l’attention sur lui. Les journalistes et les artistes présents dans la capitale nigériane n’ont de mots que pour ce rebelle qui critique ouvertement l’establishment corrompu. Aussitôt les articles et les reportages sur l’homme affluent des médias américains et européens. Pour le conseil militaire que dirige le général Obasanjo, la décision est prise : fermer le clapet à cet agitateur qui ignore — contrairement aux autres chanteurs africains — le culte des chefs. Quelques jours après la fin du festival, un régiment entier de militaires prend d’assaut la Kalakuta Republic. La suite, on la connaît. C’est ce que Fela décrit dans Unknown soldier — le soldat inconnu. En effet l’action judiciaire qu’il engage contre les autorités se solde par un non-lieu, le coup étant imputé à « des soldats inconnus au bataillon ». À sa sortie de prison, il est harcelé par la police et doit se résoudre à s’exiler au Ghana. Il en est chassé l’année suivante pour avoir soutenu une violente manifestation d’étudiants qui ont trouvé en : « Zombie, oh zombie…» leur cri de ralliement contre la junte du dictateur local. De retour au pays, il épouse les vingt-sept femmes de son groupe et se remarie avec sa première épouse dans une cérémonie vaudou dirigée par un prêtre ifa. Les tournées qui le mènent un peu partout en Afrique, en Europe, aux États-Unis, rencontrent partout un accueil triomphal et lui confèrent une notoriété mondiale. Désormais doté d’un matériel ultra-moderne, il est au sommet de son art, comme en témoignent le brio des titres comme Sorrow tears and blood, S(h)uffering and s(h)miling ou Everything scatter. De fait il devient le premier chanteur africain à réaliser une remarquable percée dans la World music ouvrant la voie aux artistes d'aujourd'hui. Le M.O.P.[modifier] 1979 voit le retour d’un gouvernement civil au Nigeria. Il fonde alors son parti, le Movement Of the People (M.O.P.) et se déclare candidat aux élections de 1983. Mais le chemin vers la présidence est enrayé lorsqu’en 1981, les autorités l’enferment pour possession de cannabis et interdisent dans la foulée son parti et sa branche culturelle, les YAP — Young African Pioneers. Il réplique en sortant Army arrangement qui met en lumière un scandale financier impliquant la junte au pouvoir. Alors qu’il s’apprête à se rendre à New York où il doit enregistrer son nouvel album, il est de nouveau arrêté à l’aéroport de Lagos pour exportation illégale de devises. Si le chef d’inculpation ne trompe personne, il en prend pour cinq ans de prison — le juge avouera plus tard avoir subi des pressions gouvernementales. La pression économique des bailleurs de fonds, la mobilisation générale des artistes qui organisent des concerts de soutien en Europe, le renversement de la dictature de l’implacable général Buhari obtiennent finalement sa libération en 1986. Il entre alors dans une semi-retraite que seuls quelques concerts dans sa boîte privée, le Shrine et la sortie de Beasts of no nation, viennent troubler. Il laisse le devant de la scène à son fils aîné et digne successeur, Femi Kuti. Le rebelle flamboyant semble avoir perdu sa verve contestataire. Même au plus fort de la dictature du général Abacha, l'emprisonnement de son frère, Beko Ransome Kuti, président de la Ligue Nigériane des Droits de l'Homme, le laisse sans réaction. Les mauvaises langues le disent fini. C'est oublier que l'homme se bat depuis des mois contre le Sida, la maladie affecte d'autant plus gravement son corps que les nombreux sévices subis en prison l'ont affaibli. Il s'éteint finalement le 2 août 1997, laissant derrière lui un immense vide. La nation entière pleure la mort de son héros. Les autorités militaires qui l'ont pourtant impitoyablement réprimé avouent avoir perdu « l'un des hommes les plus valeureux de l'histoire du pays », décrètent quatre jours de deuil national et proposent même de lui organiser des funérailles nationales. Le 12 août, près d'un million de Lagossiens descendent spontanément dans les rues pour lui rendre un dernier hommage et l'accompagner dans sa dernière demeure. Conformément à son testament Fela est inhumé à son domicile de Gbemisola, Ikeja à côté de la tombe de sa mère, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti. Discographie[modifier] Année Titre Label 1971 Live ! (with Ginger Baker) Wrasse Records 1971 Why Black Man Dey Suffer Wrasse Records 1972 Na Poi Wrasse Records 1972 Open & Close Wrasse Records 1972 Shakara Wrasse Records 1972 Roforofo Fight Wrasse Records 1973 Afrodisiac Wrasse Records 1973 Gentleman Wrasse Records 1974 Alagbon Close Wrasse Records 1975 Noise for Vendor Mouth Wrasse Records 1975 Confusion Wrasse Records 1975 Everything Scatter Wrasse Records 1975 He Miss Road Wrasse Records 1975 Expensive @#!*% Wrasse Records 1976 No Bread Wrasse Records 1976 Kalakuta Show Wrasse Records 1976 Upside Down Wrasse Records 1976 Ikoyi Blindness Wrasse Records 1976 Before I Jump Like Monkey Give Me Banana Wrasse Records 1976 Excuse O Wrasse Records 1976 Zombie Wrasse Records 1976 Yellow Fever Wrasse Records 1977 Opposite People Wrasse Records 1977 Fear Not For Man Wrasse Records 1977 Stalemate Wrasse Records 1977 Observation No Crime Wrasse Records 1977 Johnny Just Drop (J.J.D Live!! at Kalakuta Republic) Wrasse Records 1977 I Go Shout Plenty Wrasse Records 1977 No Agreement Wrasse Records 1977 Sorrow, Tears, and Blood Wrasse Records 1978 Shuffering and Shmiling Wrasse Records 1979 Unknown Soldier Wrasse Records 1980 I.T.T. (International Thief Thief) Wrasse Records 1980 Music of Many Colours (with Roy Ayers) Wrasse Records 1980 Authority Stealing Wrasse Records 1981 Black President Wrasse Records 1981 Original Sufferhead Wrasse Records 1981 Coffin for Head of State Wrasse Records 1983 Perambulator Wrasse Records 1983 Live in Amsterdam Wrasse Records 1985 Army Arrangement Wrasse Records 1986 Teacher Don't Teach Me Nonsense Wrasse Records 1989 Beasts of No Nation Wrasse Records 1989 O.D.O.O. (Overtake Don Overtake Overtake) Wrasse Records 1990 Confusion Break Bones Wrasse Records 1990 Just Like That Wrasse Records 1992 Underground System Wrasse Records Source : Filmographie[modifier] Suffering and Smiling (Documentaire, Réal. Dan Ollman, 2006) Synopsis en Français, en Anglais Théâtrographie[modifier] Fela!, comédie musicale1 écrite, dirigée et chorégraphiée par Bill T. Jones, d'abord jouée, en 2008, dans le cadre des spectales « Off-Broadway » puis, à partir du 23 novembre 2009, au Eugene O'Neill Theater2,3. La comédie musicale sera jouée à Londres, du 6 novembre 2010 à la mi-janvier 2011, au National Theatre4. Suite[modifier] Music is the weapon

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